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A Stockholder Visits Flint
Albert Taylor discusses the improved working conditions following the strikes.
Alexander Reider had his collarbone broken in a fight in the Chevy 4 plant.
Alexander Reider remembers being injured in the Chevy 4 takeover
Alexander Reider signed up practically his entire department for the union in the Chevy 4 plant.
Also talks about how they had to burn burlap when the company shut off the heat.
Although the other Flint plants settled their strikes before Standard Cotton, Dolen Scobey had no doubts that the union would also prevail in Standard Cotton.
Andrew Havrilla talks about the unequal wage system.
Andrew Olay remembers that there was a more democratic feeling in the plants after the strike
Andrew Olay talks about men bolting from the plant when it was shut down.
Andrew Skunda talks about the conclusion of the strike and the consequences of it.
Andrew Skunda talks about the poor conditions in the Fisher 1 paint shop
Ann Gadola talks about the importance of the National Guard in Flint during the sit-down strikes.
Ann Gadola, the wife of Judge Paul Gadola, had to be escorted by a policeman whenever she left the house.
Archie Jones talks about the organization of unions following the auto strikes.
Archie Jones talks about union meetings with leaders such as Wyndham Mortimer and Bob Travis.
Arthur Smith talks about the organization and execution of the 1930 strike.
Arthur Smith talks about the role of the Communist Party in the union.
Arthur Smith talks about the union meetings that took place before the 1930 strike.
Assigning duties
Bonus System
Bruce Smelser describes the atmosphere inside the plant during the sit-down strikes.
Bruce Smelser talks about the poor conditions in the plants that led up to the strikes.
Bud Simons talks about the effects of factionalism on the strikes and the difficulties it caused once the strikes had concluded.
Bud Simons talks about the establishment of the local AFL in Flint.
Bud Simons talks about the influence of the Black Legion on the union.
Bud Simons, a coordinator of the Fisher 1 sit-down strike, talks about the organization of the strike.
Cecil Hendricks believes that lack of support for the union caused the failure of the strikes in the early 1930s.
Cecil Hendricks compares the Steward System and the Committee System from an insider's point of view.
Cecil Hendricks talks about the gradual progress of the union in Flint in the 1930s.
Cecil Hendricks thinks that the strikers inside of Fisher 1 were very well organized during the strike.
Centrality of Flint to GM
Charles Jason talks about the deplorable living and working conditions prior to the strike.
Charles Killinger gained experience with union negotiations in various ways.
Charles Killinger reminisces about many of his influential aquaintances during the strike.
Charles Killinger talks about life inside the plant during the strike.
Charles Killinger talks about the distribution of union papers printed by the UAW.
Charles Killinger talks about the situation inside the plants before the sit-down strikes.
Chuck Shinn discusses the details of the pre-strike union meetings.
Clarence Lischer describes the company union before the strike
Clarence Lischer recruited many people in his department into the union.
Clarence Lischer talks about his involvment in other strikes outside of Flint.
Clarence Lischer was a judge for the kangaroo court established inside the plant.
Cloyse Crane remembers that there was a lot of tension between management and the workers, which broke when a man was fired for wearing a union button.
Continues his narration of the takover, part 3
Delia Parish describes some of the sad images of the Depression in Flint.
Delia Parish discusses the organization of the union before the sit-down strike.
Delia Parish mentions some of the women who worked in the strike kitchen across from Fisher.
Delia Parish remembers taking food to the strikers at Chevy 4, despite the warnings of guards
Delia Parish talks about how she became involved in the Women's Auxiliary.
Delia Parish talks about the community's animosity toward the union.
Dolen Scobey talks about making the transition from life as a southern farmer to a factory worker.
Dorothy Harbin was asked by plant management to be a spy for Communist activity inside the plant.
Dorothy Harbin was impressed that the union was able to keep the organization of the sit-down strikes so secretive.
During the strike Joe Fry collected food from grocers and farmers for the strikers in the Fisher 1 plant.
Earl Hubbard discusses the poor working conditions in the Standard Cotton plant which led the workers to strike.
Earl Hubbard talks about life inside the plants.
Earl Hubbard talks about the conditions inside Standard Cotton plant during the strike.
Ed Erlich manned the hoses during the Battle of Bulls' Run
Ed Erlich says he was forced to leave the plant temporarily when his youngest child got sick
Ed Erlich talks about working conditions
Elizabeth Pichette describes the improvements in working conditions at the AC Sparkplug plant following the sit-down strike.
Emerson Robinson describes his work in kitchen during the strikes in Fisher 1.
Emerson Robinson reminisces about some of the more well-known members of the union who were his co-workers, such as Bud Simons.
Esther Feynberg's father, the owner of Leitson's Bakery, would offer laid-off workers credit if they did not have enough money to buy day-old bread.
Evelyn Gillette describes her life as the wife of a striker.
Evelyn Gillette says that the men didn't know whether to sit down or walk out at first
First Few Days of Strike
Flint Faces Civil War
Floyd Root describes the sit-down strikes from a foreman's point of view.
Floyd Root expresses his opinions of various leaders during the Flint sit-down strike.
Floyd Root remembers the chaotic relationship between supervision and union leadership after the strike
Floyd Root says that the sit-down tactic was wholly unconstitutional; yet it was also terribly effective.
Floyd Root talks about the role reversal of management and the workers following the strike.
Francis Jordan addresses the difficulty of keeping up with the line
Francis Jordan was hired into South Fisher so that he could play baseball for them.
Francis Pelton talks about the fear and tension that both the union supporters and the managment supporters felt during the strikes.
Frank Funk compares the different automotive plants in terms of the strike.
Frank Funk describes the sit-down strike as a "communist" weapon
Frank Funk tried to organize a local union, but it was ineffective because of a lack of financial backing.
Genora Johnson describes her role in the Social party during the time of the strikes in Flint.
Genora Johnson talks about her work in some of the pro-strike organizations.
Gerald Healy claims that the strike was detrimental to the economy.
Gerald Healy discusses an aborted plan to have the Reuther brothers beat up
Gerald Healy lays the blame for the failure of his efforts on Governor Frank Murphy.
Gerald Healy says it was the sit-down tactic that got everybodys attention
Getting sick on the line from overwork
Gilbert Rose questions the legality of the sit-down strike in Plant 4.
Gillian K. nearly lost his job for eating candy on the line
Gordon Nelson talks about his involvement in the sit-down strikes as a guard for the cafeteria and the Pengelley Building.
Grant Ricks belonged to the union even though he already made good wages
Grant Ricks recalls the union's strategy to take over the engine plant.
Grant Ricks remembers that the union wanted to change Flint into an all-union town.
Harold O'Rourke talks about the politics behind both the union and General Motors.
Harry Fleischman talks about the interest of various political parties in both domestic and international affairs.
Harry Fleischman was very active in the Socialist party during the Flint sit-down strikes.
Harry Fleischman was very active in the Socialist party during the Flint sit-down strikes.
Henry Kraus discusses the politics and leadership behind the union.
Henry Kraus discusses the problems within the union despite the united front presented to the public.
Henry Kraus talks about his dispute with Homer Martin.
Henry Kraus talks about stool pigeons within the union.
Henry Kraus talks about the growth and transition period of the union after the strike.
Henry Kraus talks about the role that various political parties played in the union.
Henry Kraus, the editor of the United Auto Worker, talks about his relationships with various leaders of the Flint sit-down strikes.
Hugh "Burt" Harris' involvment in the union put him in danger of being targeted by the Black Legion.
Hugh Harris recalls that the union called in the Communist Party to help organize the sit-down strikes.
Ira and Lena Howell compare their jobs with the auto industry as a metal finisher and office worker respectively.
Iren Mitchell and other women supported the strikers by picketing and working in the strike kitchen.
Irene Mitchell describes the grievance procedure for the Committee System.
Irene Mitchell talks about the decision to keep AC Sparkplug running during the strike.
Irving King compares the Committee System with the Steward System.
Irving King describes the behavior of the workers after going back to work
Irving King discusses life inside the plant during the sit-down strike.
Irving King talks about the absolute authority held by GM before the strike.
Irving King talks about the disapproval of Communism in the union.
J.A. Olay talks about his duty as a
J.A. Olay talks about the conflict between the AFL and the CIO and his decision to side with the AFL.
J.A. Olay took a job as a Steward in order to help organize the union and get more members to come to the meetings.
JD Dotson recalls that the law, including the FBI, was extrememly harsh on the Communist party.
JD Dotson tried to start organizing a union in 1929 with four other people.
Jack Palmer talks about the progression of union activity in Flint throughout the 1930s.
Jack Palmer worked to sign people up for the union both during and after the sit-down strike.
James Humphrey discusses the change in the working conditions after the union was established in Flint.
James Humphrey talks about the low wages in the Standard Cotton plant.
James Spohn recalls the improved conditions in the paint department immediately after the strike
James Spohn refused to join the CIO, so some members tried to force him to join.
James Spohn talks about his leadership role in the sit-down strikes.
James Spohn talks about the secret union meetings that were held to plan the 1930 strike.
Jim Moran recalls his surprise when he came back from lunch to find Plant 1 on strike.
Joe Devitt talks about the attempts to increase AFL membership prior to the sit-down strikes.
Joe Fry tried to collect food from area merchants and farmers
Joe Fry tried to collect food from area merchants and farmers
John Thrasher discusses the controversy of the split between the AFL and CIO.
Joseph Schiller, operator of Field's Clothing for almost 30 years, talks about the effects ofthe strike on businesses in the Flint area.
Joseph Skunda says that the strike could have been a lot more violent
Joseph Skunda talks about the different roles his family members played in the strikes.
Joseph Skunda talks about the discontent among workers before and during the strikes.
Ken Malone talks about the Communist party in Flint during the time of the strike.
Knotts talks about union demands
Kraus describes workers distrust of John L Lewis
Kraus discusses the theory behind sit-down strikes
Kraus feels that the necessity of a strike was recognized as early as 1935
Larry Jones describes the hot summer of 1936 and its effect on workers
Larry Jones describes the meeting between Lewis and Murphy on February 9
Larry Jones discusses the poor conditions in the Chevy 4 plant.
Larry Jones recounts how it took extreme optimism and faith to believe that the strike would be successful
Larry Jones says that the actual beginning of the strike was a surprise
Larry Jones says that the actual beginning of the strike was a surprise.
Larry Jones talks about the media's involvment and interest in the Flint strikes.
Larry Jones talks about the role of the “Red Berets”:
Larry Jones talks about the role of women during the strike.
Larry Jones talks about the strategy for taking over the Chevy 4 plant.
Laura Hayward describes her efforts to raise the morale of the families of strikers during the sit-down strikes.
Laura Hayward discusses the political parties of some of the more prominent leaders in the union.
Laura Hayward had to be very secretive concerning her involvment in the union while she was on the job.
Laura Hayward remembers that the Flint Journal cast everybody involved in the strike as either “Reds” or fascists
Lenka Evanoff and her family were well-known and well-liked in Flint around the time of the sit-down strikes, despite the fact that it was rumored they were Communist.
Lenka Evanoff recalls that her husband did not want her working in a factory.
Lenka Evanoff relates an incident when Bob Travis came to talk to her about his plans for the sit-down strikes.
Leo Connelly recalls life inside the Chevy 4 plant.
Leo Connelly relates a story in which he tried to help out with a strike at Fisher 1 and ended up being arrested.
Leo Connelly talks about the condition of the union following the sit-down strikes.
Leo Connelly was threatened by the general foreman
Leo Robinson claims that the sit-down was John L. Lewis’s idea
Leo Robinson describes the living conditions prior to and during the strike as "hand to mouth."
Leo Robinson says that workers lost wages if the machines broke down.
Leo Robinson says the strike gave him the chance to get on a desirable shift
Leo Robinson stresses the importance of family support while the workers were in the plants.
Leo Robinson talks about his tussle with company men on the stairwell at Chevy 4
Leo Robinson talks about the managerial problems in the plant prior to the Flint strikes.
Leo Robinson tells the story of the diversion technique of the union when taking over Plant 4.
Like Russel Gage, Joseph Skunda did not have time for a drink of water.
Lloyd Gebo talks about the changing conditions in the Standard Cotton Plant.
Lloyd Gebo talks about the political orientation of some of the strike leaders, including his own brother-in-law John Thrasher.
Lloyd Gebo talks about the terrible dust at Standard Cotton
Lottie Pora supported the strikers by joining the picket lines.
Lottie Pora talks about the Polish community in Flint.
Louis Gancsos Sr. recalls the difficulty of obtaining a job during the Depression.
Louis Gancsos emphasizes working conditions as the cause of the strike
Louis Gancsos says that the leaders of the strike were radical by necessity
Louis Gancsos talks about the confusion over the role of the union when the workers returned to their jobs.
Louise Crawford reminisces about old friends and coworkers of hers during the strike.
Louise Crawford talks about the bond between pro-union people and their commitment to the union.
Louise Crawford worked in the Pengelley Building in support of the union.
Making Ends Meet and Staying Active
Martin Japinga talks about his experiences as a Flint police officer at the time
Martin Japingh discusses the duties of the National Guard when they were stationed in Flint.
Martin Japingh, a member of the National Guard, recalls being called into Flint to guard Fisher 2.
Mary Nightengale was head of the strike kitchen which provided the strikers with food.
Maurice Scobey describes the post-strike attitudes and activities of the union members.
Maurice Scobey recalls the horrible dust hazard in the Standard Cotton plant prior to the strikes.
Maynard Mundale discusses how the strikers defended themselves against the police in the Battle of Bulls' Run.
Maynard Mundale discusses the arrival of Bob Travis.
Maynard Mundale felt that Fisher 2 did not get the same attention as Fisher 1 during the strike.
Maynard Mundale had to buy his job in the auto plant for five dollars.
Maynard Mundale talks about his position as head of the strike committee and bargaining committee in Fisher 2.
Maynard Mundale talks about the AFL strike of 1930.
Maynard Mundale talks about wearing union buttons in the shop.
Mearl Sipes contrasts the Steward System with the Committee System.
Mearl Sipes discusses the repercussions of the split between the AFL and the CIO.
Mearl Sipes says that the supporters of the union were not against the company.
Mearl Sipes stresses the importance of education in the formation of the union.
Merill Cregar recalls an incident in which he was asked to be a stoolpigeon.
Michael Evanoff talks about the diversity in Flint during the time of the strikes.
Milton Jones discusses early union activity in Flint.
Milton Jones discusses his decision to not stay in the plant during the strike.
Mrs. Larson talks about the drastic changes in the working conditions for her husband after the strike.
Mrs. Larson's husband, a Fisher 2 worker, was shot during the Battle of Bulls' Run.
Mrs. Robert Snyder describes what it was like to be the wife of a sit-down striker.
Mrs. Robert Snyder talks about what life at home was like after the sit-down strikes.
Mrs. Rollin Moon discusses her husbands involvment in the Ku Klux Klan.
Mrs. Rollin Moon says that company goons tried to scare the wives of strikers at night.
Mrs. Rollin Moon talks about her and her family being threatened by anti-union people.
Mrs. Rollin Moon talks about the dangers of being a part of the 1930 strike in Flint.
O'Rourke felt that the Communist leaders were manipulating the workers for political gain.
Orvel Simmons describes the foremen as acting cruelly toward the workers.
Orvel Simmons talks about the union's involvement with politics in Flint.
Otis Kenneth Gillian recalls an incident in which he was nearly fired for eating a candy bar on the job.
Otis Kenneth Gillian recalls the secret union meetings held to discuss the organization of the strikes.
Paul Loisell did not understand the need for a union.
Paul Loisell felt that the strike was unnecessary.
Peter Schmitz discusses the problems with the new Committee System in the plant following the strikes.
Peter Schmitz remembers his experiences as a dishwasher for the Fisher 1 sit-down strikers.
Peter Schmitz says that the general public was caught by surprise when the strike occurred.
Protected by National Guard
Ralph Park talks about his work supporting the strike both inside and outside the plant.
Ralph Park talks about the difficulties of living without a paycheck during the strike.
Ralph Parker describes his disappointment after the unsuccessful 1934 strike.
Ray Holland did odd-jobs in Fisher 2 for eight years because there were no real jobs available.
Ray Holland talks about GMs high turnover rate
Ray Holland talks about the strike organizers use of Plant 9 as a decoy while Plant 4 went on strike.
Rich Roscoe talks about shutting Fisher II down.
Robert Gibbs says the churches didn't help because of their emphasis on non-violence under any circumstance
Robert Mamero did not know who shot him during the Battle of Bulls' Run.
Robert Mamero says that the strike showed the company that men couldn't be treated like dogs.
Robert Mamero was shot during the Battle of Bulls' Run and taken immediately to the hospital, but jailed upon his release.
Robert Severance discusses the grievances of workers at Fisher 1 that caused them to strike.
Robert Severence favored the Homer Martin faction during the union split.
Roscoe Rich talks about Communism among the union leaders.
Roscoe Rich talks about the strategy of the strikers for combatting the police during the Battle of Bulls' Run.
Rotten foremen
Roy Knotts recalls an atmosphere of confusion and tension in the plant in the few days following the settlement of the sit-down strike.
Roy Knotts says that the unsafe working conditions were the primary reason the workers went on strike.
Russel Gage did not even have time for a drink of water
Russel Gage remembers the foremen in the auto plants as being
Sheldon McNe remembers the first night of sitting in
Sheldon Mcne only sat-in at Fisher 1 for one night before getting out.
Sheldon Mcne talks about the difficulty of getting along without a paycheck during the strike.
Shirley Foster descibes her view of the strike as the wife of a member of the Strike Committee.
Shirley Foster talks about the situation of teachers in Flint during the time of the Flint sit-down strikes.
Signing up Union Members
Sitting down in Chevy 4
Small differences after strike
Spies in the Shop
Stanley Novak describes the tight-knit Polish community in Flint.
Stanley Novak discusses his role in negotiating a beneficial contract for the Polish workers.
Stanley Novak discusses the political atmosphere in Flint during the strike.
Stanley Novak was an extremely influential figure in both the union and the Polish community.
Steven Komarsr talks about a typical day inside Fisher 1 during the sit-down strike.
Strike Methodology
Threatened by Foreman
Tom Klasey talks about anti-union groups around Flint such as the Black Legion and the Ku Klux Klan.
Vincent King talks about the feelings of the Catholic church regarding the auto workers strike.
Vincent King was a runner between the Fisher Body plant and the strike kitchen when he was a striker in the plant.
Wages and Conditions at G.M.
Walter Keech found the conditions in the Standard Cotton plant unbearable prior to union negotiations.
Walter Keech talks about the difficulties of being part of both the National Guard and the union.
Walter Reuther comes to town with armed men.
While Robert Gibbs did not sit-down in Fisher 1 during the strike he did support the union by periodically working in the union hall.
Wife of Judge Gadola talks about having police protection at her house
Wildcat Strikes
William Connelly describes the situation of the union following the strikes.
William Connelly talks about life inside the Fisher 2 plant during the sit-down strike.
William Connelly talks about the struggle between the police and the strikers at Fisher 2 during the Battle of Bulls' Run.
William Genske talks about his impressions of Fisher 1 before, during, and after the strike from the perspective of a union member.
William Spechman talks about his experiences as a member of the labor class
William Spechman talks about the changing conditions following the strikes.
Working Conditions

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